Istanbul, Historic Peninsula

Top five must-see places in Istanbul

Straddling Europe and Asia across the Bosphorus Strait between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea, Istanbul is one of the major tourist destinations in Europe. The city’s strategic location has made it one of history’s most important cities. So there’s a plenty of historical places to see, and to feel the exotic atmosphere. Here are the top five most rated tourist attractions and must-see places in Istanbul.

1. The Historic Peninsula

Istanbul, Historic Peninsula
Istanbul, a universal beauty where poet and archeologist, diplomat and merchant, princess and sailor, northerner and westerner screams with same admiration. The whole world thinks that this city is the most beautiful place on earth. –Edmondo De Amicis

The vast majority of the historical places from the ages of four Empires which ruled the city (Roman, Byzantium, Latin and Ottoman) located in the historic peninsula, which is the center of ancient Istanbul. Naturally, there are a lot of hotels and restaurants also exist in there. Main sights include:

Istanbul, Historic Peninsula from TophaneIstanbul, Historic Peninsula from Tophane
Istanbul, Historic Peninsula from Tophane

1.1. Hagia Sophia

Hagia Sophia, Istanbul
Hagia Sophia (September 2016)

Hagia Sophia is a former Christian patriarchal basilica (church), later an imperial mosque, and now a museum (Ayasofya Müzesi in Turkish). From the date of its construction in 537, it was used as a church for 916 years but, following the conquest of Istanbul by Fatih Sultan Mehmed in 1453, it was converted into mosque. Then it converted into a museum in 1935. Its name comes from Ἁγία Σοφία in Greek, meaning, “Holy Wisdom”; Latin: Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia; Turkish: Ayasofya.

The church was dedicated to the Wisdom of God, the Logos (a name or title of Jesus Christ), the second person of the Holy Trinity.

The building is an important place in the art world with its architecture, grandness, size and functionality. It actually has been constructed three times in the same location. When it was first built, it was named Megale Ekklesia (Big Church); however, after the fifth century, it was referred to as the Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom). The church was the place in which rulers were crowned, and it was also the biggest operational cathedral in the city throughout the Byzantine period.

The first church was constructed by Emperor Konstantios (337-361) in 360. The first church was covered with a wooden roof and expanded vertically (basilica) yet was burned down after the public riot that took place in 404 as a result of the disagreements between Emperor Arkadios’ (395-408) wife empress Eudoksia and Istanbul’s patriarch Ioannes Chrysostomos, who was exiled. The patriarch’s mosaic portrait can still be viewed at the tymphanon wall located in the northern part of the church. No remains have been recovered from the first church; however, the bricks found in the museum storage branded “Megale Ekklesia” are predicted to belong to the first construction.

Inside Hagia Sophia
Inside Hagia Sophia (September 2016)

The second church was reconstructed by Emperor Theodosios II (408-450) in 415. This basilical structure is known to contain five naves and a monumental entrance; it is also covered by a wooden roof.

The church was demolished in January 13, 532, after the public riot (Nika revolts) that took place during the fifth year of Emperor Justinianos’ reign (527-565), when the ‘blues’ who represented the aristocrats, and the ‘greens’ who represented the tradesman and merchants in the society, collaborated against the Empire.

Remains found during the excavations led by A. M Scheinder of the Istanbul German Archeology Institute, 2 meters below ground level, include steps belonging to the Propylon (monumental door), column bases and pieces with lamb embossings that represent the 12 apostles. In addition, other architectural pieces that belong to the monumental entrance can be seen in the west garden.

The current structure was constructed by Isidoros (Milet) and Anthemios (Tralles), who were renowned architects of their time, by Emperor Justinianos’s (527-565) orders. Information from historian Prokopios states that the construction that began on February 23, 532, was completed in a short period of five years and the church was opened to worship with a ceremony on December 27, 537. Resources show that on the opening day of the Hagia Sophia, Emperor Justinianos entered the temple and said, “My Lord, thank you for giving me chance to create such a worshiping place,” and followed with the words “Suleiman, I beat you,” referring to Suleiman’s temple in Jerusalem.

1.2. The Blue Mosque

Blue Mosque, Istanbul
The Sultan Ahmed Mosque has one main dome, six minarets, and eight secondary domes. The design is the culmination of two centuries of Ottoman mosque development. It incorporates some Byzantine Christian elements of the neighboring Hagia Sophia with traditional Islamic architecture and is considered to be the last great mosque of the classical period. The architect, Sedefkâr Mehmed Ağa, synthesized the ideas of his master Sinan, aiming for overwhelming size, majesty and splendour. Photo: nevworldwonders.com

The mosque’s real name is the Sultan Ahmed Mosque. Its popular name, the “Blue Mosque” comes from the blue tiles adorning the walls of its interior. It was built from 1609 to 1616, during the rule of Ahmed I. The Sultan Ahmed Mosque is still popularly used as a mosque. But the tourists can go inside with removing their shoes. Women also have to wear a head covering when entering to Blue Mosque, which are available at the entrance for free.

Blue Mosque interior panorama
Blue Mosque interior panorama. Photo: wikipedia
Blue Mosque, Istanbul
Blue Mosque (September 2016)
Blue Mosque, Istanbul
Blue Mosque (September 2016)

1.3. Topkapı Palace

The Gate of Salutation, Topkapı Palace, Istanbul
The Gate of Salutation (Bâb-üs Selâm), entrance to the Second courtyard of Topkapı Palace. Photo: wikipedia

It is a large palace located on the Seraglio Point (Sarayburnu), a promontory overlooking the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara, with a good view of the Bosphorus from many points of the palace. It was the one of the major residency of the Ottoman sultans for almost 400 years (1465–1856) of their 624-year reign.

Topkapi Palace, Istanbul
View of Topkapı Palace from the Golden Horn. Photo: wikipedia

1.3. Roman-era Hippodrome and Obelisk

Obelisk of Thutmose III in the Hippodrome of Constantinople
The obelisk Obelisk of Theodosius was first set up by Thutmose III (1479–1425 BC) to the south of the seventh pylon of the great temple of Karnak. The Roman emperor Constantius II (337–361 AD) had it and another obelisk transported along the river Nile to Alexandria to commemorate his ventennalia or 20 years on the throne in 357. The other obelisk was erected on the spina of the Circus Maximus in Rome in the autumn of that year, and is today known as the Lateran obelisk, whilst the obelisk that would become the obelisk of Theodosius remained in Alexandria until 390, when Theodosius I (378–392 AD) had it transported to Constantinople and put up on the spina of the Hippodrome there. Photo: wikipedia

The Hippodrome of Constantinople (Turkish: Sultanahmet Square) was a circus that was the sporting and social centre of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire. The word “hippodrome” comes from the Greek hippos (ἵππος), horse, and dromos (δρόμος), path or way. Horse racing and chariot racing were popular pastimes in the ancient world and hippodromes were common features of Greek cities in the Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine eras. Today it is a square named Sultan Ahmet Square, with a few fragments of the original structure surviving. The Sultan Ahmet Square is one of the main tourist attractions of Istanbul.

You can also see the Obelisk of Theodosius in there: it is the Ancient Egyptian obelisk of Pharaoh Thutmose III re-erected in the Hippodrome of Constantinople by the Roman emperor Theodosius I in the 4th century AD. It is made of red granite from Aswan and was originally 30 meters tall, like the Lateran Obelisk. The lower part was damaged in antiquity, probably during its transport or re-erection, and so the obelisk is today only 18.54 meters high, or 25.6 meters if the base is included. Between the four corners of the obelisk and the pedestal are four bronze cubes, used in its transportation and re-erection. Each of its four faces has a single central column of inscription, celebrating Thutmose III’s victory over the Mitanni (Hurrian-speaking state in northern Syria and southeast Anatolia from ca. 1500 BC–1300 BC) which took place on the banks of the Euphrates in about 1450 BC.

Basilica Cistern

Basilica Cistern, Istanbul (September 2016)
The name Basilica Cistern derives from a large public square on the First Hill of Constantinople, the Stoa Basilica, beneath which it was originally constructed. Before being converted to a cistern, a great Basilica stood in its place, built between the 3rd and 4th centuries during the Early Roman Age as a commercial, legal and artistic center. The basilica was reconstructed by Illus after a fire in 476.
Ancient texts indicated that the basilica contained gardens, surrounded by a colonnade and facing the Hagia Sophia. According to ancient historians, Emperor Constantine built a structure that was later rebuilt and enlarged by Emperor Justinian after the Nika riots of 532, which devastated the city.
Historical texts claim that 7,000 slaves were involved in the construction of the cistern.
The enlarged cistern provided a water filtration system for the Great Palace of Constantinople and other buildings on the First Hill, and continued to provide water to the Topkapi Palace after the Ottoman conquest in 1453 and into modern times.

One of the magnificent ancient buildings of İstanbul is the Basilica Cistern (Turkish: Yerebatan Sarayı – “Sunken Palace”, or Yerebatan Sarnıcı – “Sunken Cistern”). It is the largest of several hundred ancient cisterns that lie beneath the city of Constantinople. It is located in the southwest of Hagia Sophia. Constructed by Justinianus I, the Byzantium Emperor (527-565), this big underground water reservoir is called as “Yerebatan Cistern” among the public because of the underground marble columns. As there used to be a basilica in the place of the cistern, it is also called Basilica Cistern.

Medusa, Basilica Cistern, Istanbul (September 2016)
Medusa as a plinth of a column in the Basilica Cistern. In Greek mythology, Medusa was a monster, a Gorgon, generally described as a winged human female with a hideous face and living venomous snakes in place of hair. Gazers on her face would turn to stone. Most sources describe her as the daughter of Phorcys and Ceto, though the author Hyginus (Fabulae Preface) makes Medusa the daughter of Gorgon and Ceto. According to Hesiod and Aeschylus, she lived and died on an island named Sarpedon, somewhere near Cisthene. The 2nd-century BCE novelist Dionysios Skytobrachion puts her somewhere in Libya, where Herodotus had said the Berbers originated her myth, as part of their religion.
Medusa was beheaded by the hero Perseus, who thereafter used her head, which retained its ability to turn onlookers to stone, as a weapon until he gave it to the goddess Athena to place on her shield. In classical antiquity the image of the head of Medusa appeared in the evil-averting device known as the Gorgoneion.

This cathedral-size cistern is an underground chamber approximately 138 metres (453 ft) by 64.6 metres (212 ft) – about 9,800 square metres (105,000 sq ft) in area – capable of holding 80,000 cubic metres (2,800,000 cu ft) of water. The ceiling is supported by a forest of 336 marble columns, each 9 metres (30 ft) high, arranged in 12 rows of 28 columns each spaced 4.9 metres (16 ft) apart. The capitals of the columns are mainly Ionic and Corinthian styles, with the exception of a few Doric style with no engravings. The cistern has the capacity to store 100,000 tons of water, despite being virtually empty today with only a few feet of water lining the bottom.

1.4. Istanbul Archaeological Museum

Istanbul Archaeological Museum
Inside the Istanbul Archaeological Museums. The site of the museums belonged to the Topkapı Palace outer gardens. The museum was founded by decree as the Imperial Museum (Ottoman Turkish: Müze-i Hümayun‎ or Turkish: İmparatorluk Müzesi) in 1891. The first curator and founder of the museum was Osman Hamdi Bey.

It is actually three museums, located near Gülhane Park and Topkapı Palace: the Archaeological Museum (in the main building), Museum of the Ancient Orient and Museum of Islamic Art (in the Tiled Kiosk).

The museum is open to the public from 09:00 to 19:00, closed on Mondays. Tickets are 15 TL (around 5 euros).

The museum has a large collection of Turkish, Hellenistic and Roman artifacts. The ornate Alexander Sarcophagus, found in the necropolis of Sidon (the third-largest city in Lebanon), once believed to be prepared for Alexander the Great, is among the most famous pieces of ancient art in the museum. Other important artifacts include (but not limited to):

  • Sarcophagus of the Crying Women, also found in Sidon
  • Tabnit sarcophagus and the Satrap
  • A monumental Lycian tomb
  • Glazed tile images from the Ishtar Gate of Babylon
  • Statues from ancient antiquity until the end of the Roman Era, from Aphrodisias, Ephesus and Miletus
The Alexander Sarcophagus
The Alexander Sarcophagus is a late 4th century BC Hellenistic stone sarcophagus adorned with bas-relief carvings of Alexander the Great. The work is remarkably well preserved and has been celebrated for its high aesthetic achievement. It is considered the outstanding holding of the Istanbul Archaeology Museum.

1.5. The Grand Bazaar

Grand Bazaar
Inside the Grand Bazaar. Today it is a thriving complex, employing 26,000 people visited by between 250,000 and 400,000 visitors daily, and one of the major landmarks of Istanbul. Photo: wikipedia

Located inside the walled city of Istanbul, the Grand Bazaar (Turkish: Kapalıçarşı, meaning “Covered Bazaar”) is one of the largest and oldest covered markets in the world, with 61 covered streets and over 3,000 shops which attract between 250,000 and 400,000 visitors daily. In 2014, it is listed No.1 among world’s most-visited tourist attractions with 91,250,000 annual visitors.

2. Beyoğlu and Galata

Istiklal Avenue under snow
Istiklal Avenue (Istanbul), Beyoğlu, under snow.

Beyoğlu is a district located on the European side of İstanbul, Turkey, separated from the old city (historic peninsula of Constantinople) by the Golden Horn. It was known as Pera (Πέρα, meaning “Across” in Greek) during the Middle Ages, and this name remained in common use until the mid-20th century and the immigration of its large Greek population.

Galata ia a neighbourhood opposite the historic peninsula, located at the northern shore of the Golden Horn, the inlet which separates it from the historic peninsula of old Constantinople. The Golden Horn is crossed by several bridges, most notably the Galata Bridge. The medieval citadel of Galata was a colony of the Republic of Genoa between 1273 and 1453.

2.1. The Galata Tower

Galata Tower
The Galata Tower

The Galata Tower (Galata Kulesi in Turkish) — called Christea Turris (the Tower of Christ in Latin) by the Genoese — is a medieval stone tower in the Galata/Karaköy quarter of Istanbul, Turkey, just to the north of the Golden Horn’s junction with the Bosphorus. One of the city’s most striking landmarks, it is a high, cone-capped cylinder that dominates the skyline and offers a panoramic vista of Istanbul’s historic peninsula and its environs.

The nine-story tower is 66.90 meters tall (62.59 m without the ornament on top, 51.65 m at the observation deck), and was the city’s tallest structure when it was built. The elevation at ground level is 35 meters above sea-level. The tower has an external diameter of 16.45 meters at the base, an 8.95 meters diameter inside, and walls that are 3.75 meters thick.

There is a restaurant and café on its upper floors which command a magnificent view of Istanbul and the Bosphorus. Also located on the upper floors is a night club which hosts a Turkish show. There are two operating elevators that carry visitors from the lower level to the upper levels.

View atop Galata Tower
The view atop Galata Tower

2.2. St. Anthony of Padua Church

Church of St. Anthony of Padua
Church of St. Anthony of Padua on İstiklal Avenue, Istanbul.

St. Anthony of Padua Church is the largest church of the Roman Catholic Church in Istanbul. It is located on İstiklal Avenue in the historic Beyoğlu (Pera) district, the social and cultural center of Istanbul. Read more

3. The Bosphorus

Crossing the Bosphorus by boat 04
The Bosphorus is particularly famous for the 620 historic waterfront houses (yalı) built during the Ottoman period, which stretch along the strait’s European and Asian shorelines.

The Bosphorus is a natural strait and internationally-significant waterway located in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey. The world’s narrowest strait used for international navigation, the Bosporus connects the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmara, and, by extension, via the Dardanelles, the Aegean, and Mediterranean Seas.

You can enjoy the beauties of the Bosphorus by the special cruise tours. There are a lot of options, and the cheapest (but still great) option is using the city’s ferry lines.

3.1. Rumelihisarı (Rumelian Castle)

Rumelihisarı
Rumelihisarı as seen from the Bosphorus strait. Photo: wikipedia

Rumelihisarı (also known as Rumelian Castle and Roumeli Hissar Castle) is a fortress located in the Sarıyer district (but it’s actually close to Bebek), on a hill at the European side of the Bosphorus. It gives the name of the quarter around it. It was built by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II between 1451 and 1452, before his army’s conquest of Constantinople.

The castle is situated at the narrowest point with 660 meters of the Bosphorus strait, just opposite of Anadoluhisarı (Anatolian Castle) on the Anatolian side, which is another Ottoman fortress that was built between 1393 and 1394 by Sultan Bayezid I.

3.2. Maiden’s Tower

The Maiden's Tower
The Maiden’s Tower. Topkapı Palace, Hagia Sophia and the Blue Mosque (the Historic Peninsula) are in the background.

The Maiden’s Tower (Turkish: Kız Kulesi), also known as Leander’s Tower (Tower of Leandros) since the medieval Byzantine period, is a tower lying on a small islet located at the southern entrance of the Bosphorus strait 200 m (220 yd) from the coast of Üsküdar. Read more

4. The Prince Islands

Princes' Islands
Princes’ Islands

The Prince Islands, officially just Adalar (“Islands”), are an archipelago off the coast of Istanbul, in the Sea of Marmara. They consist of four larger islands, Büyükada (“Big Island”) with an area of 5.46 km2 (2.11 sq mi), Heybeliada (“Saddlebag Island”) with an area of 2.4 km2 (0.93 sq mi), Burgazada (“Fortress Island”) with an area of 1.5 km2 (0.58 sq mi), Kınalıada (“Henna Island”) with an area of 1.3 km2 (0.50 sq mi), and five much smaller ones, Sedef Adası (“Mother-of-Pearl Island”) with an area of 0.157 km2 (0.061 sq mi), Yassıada (“Flat Island”) with an area of 0.05 km2 (0.019 sq mi), Sivriada (“Sharp Island”) with an area of 0.05 km2 (0.019 sq mi), Kaşık Adası (“Spoon Island”) with an area of 0.006 km2 (0.0023 sq mi), and Tavşan Adası (“Rabbit Island”) with an area of 0.004 km2 (0.0015 sq mi).

During the summer months the Princes’ Islands are popular destinations for day trips from Istanbul. As there is no traffic on the Islands, the only transport being horse and cart, they are incredibly peaceful compared with the city of Istanbul. They are just a short ferry ride from Istanbul, with ferries departing from Bostancı, Kartal and Maltepe on the Asian side, and from Kabataş on the European side. Most ferries call in turn at the four largest of the nine islands: Kınalıada, Burgazada, Heybeliada and finally Büyükada. Ferry and ship services are provided by 6 different companies. In spring and autumn the islands are quieter and more pleasant, although the sea can be rough in spring, autumn and winter, and the islands are sometimes cut off from the outside world when the ferry services are cancelled due to storms and high waves. During winter, with the addition of the biting cold and the strong winds and the resulting ferry cancellations, the islands become almost deserted. As for cultural tourism, Büyükada happens to have the first and only city museum in İstanbul, the Museum of the Princes’ Islands in Aya Nikola Bay.

5. Dolmabahçe Palace

Dolmabahçe Palace
Dolmabahçe Palace as seen from the Bosphorus.

Dolmabahçe Palace is located in the Beşiktaş district, and really close to the Taksim square (10-15 minutes by walk), on the European coastline of the Bosphorus strait, served as the main administrative center of the Ottoman Empire from 1856 to 1922, apart from a 22-year interval (1887–1909) in which Yıldız Palace was used.

It is the largest palace in Turkey. It has an area of 45,000 m2 (11.1 acres), and contains 285 rooms, 46 halls, 6 baths (hamam) and 68 toilets.

The design contains eclectic elements from the Baroque, Rococo and Neoclassical styles, blended with traditional Ottoman architecture to create a new synthesis. The palace layout and décor reflect the increasing influence of European styles and standards on Ottoman culture and art during the Tanzimat period. The exterior, in particular the view from the Bosporus, shows a classical European two-wing arrangement which is divided by a big avant-corps with two side avant-corps.

Functionally, on the other hand, the palace retains elements of traditional Ottoman palace life, and also features of traditional Turkish homes. It is strictly separated structurally in a southern wing (Mabeyn-i Hümâyûn, or Selamlık, the quarters reserved for the men) which contains the public representation rooms, and a northern wing

(Harem-i Hümâyûn, the Harem) serving as the private residential area for the Sultan and his family. The two functional areas are separated by the big Ceremonial Hall (Muayede Salonu) with a floor area of 2,000 m2 (22,000 sq ft) and a 36 m (118 ft) high dome. Since the harem had to be completely isolated from the outside world, the main entrance for the visitors is located on the narrow southern side. There, the representation rooms are arranged for receptions of visitors and of foreign diplomats. The harem area includes eight interconnected apartments for the wives of the sultan, for his favourites and concubines, and for his mother, each with its own bathroom.

Sources

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